10 Tips And Tricks To Learn Any Language
10種學習任何語言的技巧

Advice for learning languages from a guy who speaks nine.
一個會說9種語言的人給的建議

BY JOHN-ERIK JORDAN

意外在網路上看到這篇文章,覺得非常有道理

在FB都可以看到不同的人分享不同的文章

常常看完之後覺得是篇勵志又深有同感的文章,然後按叉叉後從此在人生中遺忘

所以決定來把這篇文章不負責任的翻成中文記錄下來哈哈


Matthew Youlden speaks nine languages fluently and understands more than a dozen more. We work in the same office in Berlin so I constantly hear him using his skills, switching from language to language like a chameleon changing colors. In fact, for the longest time I didn’t even know he was British.

When I told Matthew how I’ve been struggling to merely pick up a second language, he had the following advice for me. If you believe that you can never become bilingual, take note!

馬修不僅可以將9種語言說得非常流利還可以聽懂超過12種不同的語言,他一直以來都在柏林的同一間公司工作因此我常常聽見他在不同語言間切換自如,事實上我甚至很長一段時間都不知道他是一個道地的英國人。當我告訴馬修我僅僅只是學一個第二外語就非常痛苦,他給我了下面這些建議,如果你也為第二外語所苦就快點記下來吧!

1. KNOW WHY YOU’RE DOING IT 知道為什麼你在做這件事

This might sound obvious, but if you don’t have a good reason to learn a language, you are less likely to stay motivated over the long-run. Wanting to impress English-speakers with your French is not a very good reason; wanting to get to know a French person in his or her own language is another matter entirely. No matter your reason, once you’ve decided on a language, it’s crucial to commit:

“OK, I want to learn this and I’m therefore going to do as much as I can in this language, with this language and for this language.”

這個建議可能聽起來非常淺白,但是如果你沒有一個很好的理由去學一個新的語言你的學習計劃是不可能持久的。舉例來說,如果你只是想用法文來加深你在英語系國家的人的印象這就不是一個非常好的理由,但是如果你想用法文去更了解一個法國人那就另當別論了。不管你的理由為何,一但你下定決心要學習一個新的語言,遵循下列這個觀念是非常重要的:"沒錯,我就是要學它,之後我也將盡己所能去學這個新語言。"

2. FIND A PARTNER 找一個一起學習的夥伴

Matthew learned several languages together with his twin brother Michael (they tackled their first foreign language, Greek, when they were only eight years old!). Matthew and Michael, or the Super Polyglot Bros. as I’d like to now refer to them, gained their superpowers from good-ol’, healthy sibling rivalry:

“We were very motivated, and we still are. We push each other to really go for it. So if he realizes that I’m doing more than he is he’ll get a bit jealous and then try and outdo me (maybe because he’s my twin) – and the other way round.”

Even if you can’t get a sibling to join you on your language adventure, having any kind of partner will push both of you to always try just a little bit harder and stay with it:

“I think it’s a really great way of actually going about it. You have someone with whom you can speak, and that’s the idea behind learning a language.”

馬修和他的雙胞胎哥哥麥可一起學了好幾種語言(他們在8歲時一起學會了第一個外語---希臘文!)馬修和麥可,或者叫多聲道兄弟經由兄弟間的良性競爭獲得現在的成就,他說:"我們一直到現在都還是非常有企圖心,我們相互督促學習,如果我一旦發現對方超越自己,我會有些忌妒並盡全力去再度超越對方。"
就算你沒有任何可以加入你語言冒險的兄弟姊妹,任何一個夥伴都可以督促對方更努力一點並且持之以恆。
馬修說:"我想這是一個學習語言非常好的方法,你有一個可以對話的人,我想這是學習語言中非常重要的一個概念。"

3. TALK TO YOURSELF 和自己對話

When you have no one else to speak to, there’s nothing wrong with talking to yourself:

“It might sound really weird, but actually speaking to yourself in a language is a great way to practice if you’re not able to use it all the time.”

This can keep new words and phrases fresh in your mind and build up your confidence for the next time you speak with someone.

如果你沒有一個可以練習口說的對象,和自己對話並沒有錯。
這聽起來可能有點奇怪,但是如果你無法整天練習一個新語言,和自己對話卻是貨真價實非常好的練習方式。
這麼做可以隨時隨地在心裡補充新的單字和用語並建立下一次你和他人對話的信心。

4. KEEP IT RELEVANT 和自己的生活更有連結

If you make conversation a goal from the beginning, you are less likely to get lost in textbooks. Talking to people will keep the learning process relevant to you:

“You’re learning a language to be able to use it. You’re not going to speak it to yourself. The creative side is really being able to put the language that you’re learning into a more useful, general, everyday setting – be that through writing songs, generally wanting to speak to people, or using it when you go abroad. You don’t necessarily have to go abroad; you can go to the Greek restaurant down the road and order in Greek.”

如果你一開始就將和他人對話設為目標,你比較不會在教科書裡失去興趣。和他人對話會讓學習過程和自己更為相關:" 你在學習一個你將會用到的語言,你不是用它來自言自語。從多元思考的方向來說,你要將你所學習的新語言變得更有用、更常見、更生活化---你可以透過寫歌或者只是平常想和他人說話聊天,甚至在你出國的時候派上用場。你不一定要出國,你可以只是走到街角的希臘餐廳快樂地用希臘文點盤菜。"

5. HAVE FUN WITH IT 享受並從中獲得樂趣

Using your new language in any way is a creative act. The Super Polyglot Bros. practiced their Greek by writing and recording songs. Think of some fun ways to practice your new language: make a radio play with a friend, draw a comic strip, write a poem, or simply talk to whomever you can. If you can’t find a way to have fun with the new language, chances are you aren’t following step four.

用不同的方式使用你的新語言是一種非常創意多元的行為。雙胞胎兄弟藉由寫歌錄歌來練習他們的希臘文。想一些有趣的方式來練習你的新語言: 和朋友錄製廣播節目、畫一些漫畫連載、寫一首詩或者只是簡單和任何人對話,如果你無法找到一個有趣的學習方式,那麼勢必你沒有遵守上面地4個步驟。

6. ACT LIKE A CHILD 像孩子一樣

This is not to say you should throw a tantrum or get food in your hair when you go out to a restaurant, but try learning the way kids do. The idea that children are inherently better learners than adults is proving to be a myth. New research cannot find a direct link between age and the ability to learn. The key to learning as quickly as a child may be to simply take on certain childlike attitudes: for instance, lack of self-consciousness, a desire to play in the language and willingness to make mistakes.

We learn by making mistakes. As kids, we are expected to make mistakes, but as adults mistakes become taboo. Think how an adult is more likely to say, “I can’t”, rather than, “I haven’t learned that yet” (I can’t swim, I can’t drive, I can’t speak Spanish). To be seen failing (or merely struggling) is a social taboo that doesn’t burden children. When it comes to learning a language, admitting that you don’t know everything (and being okay with that) is the key to growth and freedom. Let go of your grown-up inhibitions!

這並不事要你亂發脾氣或者再走出餐廳時把自己的頭髮弄得都是食物,而是用孩子的方式去學習。小孩的學習力比大人強這個觀點已經被證實為迷思了,新的研究並不能找到年齡和學習能力間直接的關聯。要和小孩學的一樣快的關鍵在於幾個小孩特有的態度,舉例來說,自我意識沒有那麼強烈、運用語言的慾望以及不怕犯錯。
我們都是從錯誤中學習,當我們還是小孩的時候犯錯被視為理所當然,但是當我們長大,犯錯卻成了一種禁忌。大人們通常比較會說:" 我不會而不是說我還沒有學過。"(我不會游泳、我不會開車、我不會說西班牙文)
被認為失敗對小孩來說並不是一種會困擾孩子的社會禁忌。如果說道學習一個新的語言,就直接承認你不知道全部的東西吧(並坦然接受)就是成長和自由的關鍵。快放生你成長的那些禁忌吧!

7. LEAVE YOUR COMFORT ZONE 離開你的舒適圈

Willingness to make mistakes means being ready to put yourself in potentially embarrassing situations. This can be scary, but it’s the only way to develop and improve. No matter how much you learn, you won’t ever speak a language without putting yourself out there: talk to strangers in the language, ask for directions, order food, try to tell a joke. The more often you do this, the bigger your comfort zone becomes and the more at ease you can be in new situations:

“At the beginning you’re going to encounter difficulties: maybe the pronunciation, maybe the grammar, the syntax, or you don’t really get the sayings. But I think the most important thing is to always develop this feel. Every native speaker has a feel for his or her own language, and that’s basically what makes a native-speaker – whether you can make the language your own.”

願意去犯錯就代表你已經準備好將自己放在充滿無限可能但是也非常窘迫的環境裡。這可能會讓你很害怕,但是這卻是唯一讓你進步的方式。無論你你學到多少,你永遠無法學好一個新語言如果你沒讓自己身處那樣的環境裡:像是和陌生人說話、問路、點餐、試圖講一個笑話。你越常做這樣的事,你的舒適圈便會擴大,讓你往後在新的環境你更輕鬆自在:" 一開始你將會遭遇困境,可能是發音、文法、語法或者你根本聽不懂別人的對話,但是我認為最重要的是要一直在這樣的感覺裡慢慢成長。每一個母語人士都對自己的母語有一種語感,而這就是讓你和這些母語人士最根本上的不同。

8. LISTEN 多聽

You must learn to listen before you can speak. Every language sounds strange the first time you hear it, but the more you expose yourself to it the more familiar it becomes, and the easier it is to speak it properly:

“We’re able to pronounce anything, it’s just we’re not used to doing it. For example the rolled r doesn’t exist in my form of English. When I was learning Spanish there were words with the hard r in them like perro and reunión. For me, the best way to go about mastering that is actually to hear it constantly, to listen to it and to kind of visualize or imagine how that is supposed to be pronounced, because for every sound there is a specific part of the mouth or throat that we use in order to achieve that sound.”

在你開口說一個新語言之前你必須學習聆聽,每一種新語言在初次接觸時都會聽起來很奇怪,但是只要你將自己多暴露在該語言的環境下,這個語言便會逐漸熟悉也更簡單說的正確。
"我們知道如何去發所有的因只是我們不習慣去使用它,舉例來說卷舌的r並不存在於我所認知的英文裡,當我再學習西班牙文的時候,r常常出現在像 perro和reunión這樣的單字裡,對我來說精通它的最好方式就是多聽,並想像它是如何發音,因為每一種發音都會運用到嘴巴和喉嚨不同的部分。"

9. WATCH PEOPLE TALK 看別人如何去說

Different languages make different demands on your tongue, lips and throat. Pronunciation is just as much physical as it is mental:

“One way – it might sound a bit strange – is to really look at someone while they’re saying words that use that sound, and then to try to imitate that sound as much as possible. Believe me, it might be difficult at the beginning, but you will. It’s something that is actually quite easily done; you just need to practice it.”

If you can’t watch and imitate a native-speaker in person, watching foreign-language films and TV is a good substitute.

不同語言會運用到舌頭、嘴唇和喉嚨不同的地方,發音就像聽起來的那樣具體化:" 有一個方式可能聽起來有一點奇怪,就是在別人說話時仔細看著他,並盡可能地去模仿他的聲音。相信我,雖然一開始可能看起來很困難,但這是一個非常容易的事,你只是需要練習。"
你果你可以看和模仿一個真的母語人士或者和外國電影電視就是一個非常好的替代。

10. DIVE IN 沉浸在其中

So you’ve made the pledge. How to proceed? Is there a proper way to go about learning? Matthew recommends the 360° maximalist approach: no matter which learning tools you use, it’s crucial to practice your new language every single day:

“I tend to want to absorb as much as possible right from the start. So if I learn something I really, really go for it and try to use it throughout the day. As the week progresses I try to think in it, try to write in it, try to speak to myself even in that language. For me it’s about actually putting what you’re learning into practice – be that writing an email, speaking to yourself, listening to music, listening to the radio. Surrounding yourself, submerging yourself in the new language culture is extremely important.”

Remember, the best possible outcome of speaking a language is for people to speak back to you. Being able to have a simple conversation is a huge reward in itself. Reaching milestones like that early on will make it easier to stay motivated and keep practicing. And don’t worry, you won’t annoy people by speaking their language poorly. If you preface any interaction with, “I’m learning and I’d like to practice…” most people will be patient, encouraging and happy to oblige. Even though there are approximately a billion non-native English-speakers around the world, most of them would rather speak their own language if given a choice. Taking the initiative to step into someone else’s language world can also put them at ease and promote good feelings all around:

“Sure, you can travel abroad speaking your own language, but you’ll get so much more out of it being able to actually feel at ease in the place you are – being able to communicate, to understand, to interact in every situation you could possibly imagine.”

如果你遇到了困境你又要如何進步呢? 有沒有學習的正確方法呢?馬修建議使用360度極大化的方法: 無論你使用了哪一種學習工具,每天練習你的新語言是非常重要的。
"我從一開始就近最大的努力去吸收,所以我學習一整天下來我非常渴望並且會使用的東西,接下來的幾個禮拜,我試圖用我的新語言來思考,寫東西甚至和自己對話。對我來說這就是一個將語言運用在現實生活中的過程,像是寫e-mail、自言自語、聽歌、聽廣播。將自己浸泡在新語言的環境裡是非常重要的關鍵。"


 

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